Development of E-Commerce in Ghana/West Africa & cyber security challenges
- Data Protection Act (Act 843) passed
- Data Protection Commission set up
- Electronic Transactions Act (Act 772)
- CERT-GH set up with support of ITU
U.S. Safe Web Act
This Act provides the FTC with a number of tools to improve enforcement regarding fraudulent spam, spyware, misleading advertising, privacy and security breaches, and other consumer protection matters, particularly those with an international dimension. Among other things, the Act allows increased cooperation with foreign law enforcement authorities through confidential information sharing, provision of investigative assistance, and enhanced staff exchanges. In certain limited circumstances it enables the FTC to obtain information in domestic or foreign consumer protection matters from third parties without tipping off investigative targets.
Cyber laws in Asia
India has adopted the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) being the cyber law in India aimed at promoting e-commerce. Further the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) has been amended by the the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008 (No. 10 of 2009). It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.
Maldives does not have any officially recognized regulations pertaining to cyber law.
Maldives has signed a Memorandum of Collaboration against Malicious Activities in cyber space with Japan Ministry of Information and Communication.
National Security Policy 2012
Bangladesh Telecommunication Act, 2001.Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 amended in the year of 2009 & 2013
Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 are the main substantive law of cyber crimes.
Bhutan does not have any specific cybercrime legislation but it has adopted the Bhutan Information and Communication Media Act 2006 http://www.moic.gov.bt/
Regulations on Safeguarding Computer Information Systems, Feb. 1996
Article 1- These regulations have been formulated to safeguard computer information systems, to promote the application and development of computers, and to ensure smooth progress in socialist modernization.
Indonesia does not have any specific cyber law legislation but it has adopted Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions, see http://www.bu.edu/bucflp/
Regulation Number 82 of 2012 Concerning Electronic System and Transaction Operation http://rulebook-jica.ekon.go.
Law on Consumers’ Protection 1999 http://www.cipatent.com/
Pornography Law 2008.
Malaysia has adopted the Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia (http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/
The Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia & the Penal Code (Revised 1997) of Malaysia, are the main substantive law.
Electronic Commerce Act 2006 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/
Electronic Government Activities Act 2007 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/
Digital Signature Act 1997 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/
Personal Data Protection Act 2010 http://www.kpkk.gov.my/pdf/
Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/
Consumer Protection Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/
Myanmar does not have any specific cyber law legislation but it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Law ( The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 ) The 12th Waxing of Kason 1366 M.E. (30th April, 2004) (http://unpan1.un.org/
Electronic Transaction Law 2004 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/
Computer Science Development Law 1996 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/
Nepal does not have any specific cyber law legislation but it has adopted The Electronic Transaction Act, 2063 & Electronic Transaction Rules 2064 (http://moste.gov.np/document_
Singapore does not have any officially recognized national legislation pertaining to cyber law. But it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Act (ETA) (Cap 88) (seehttp://www.ida.gov.sg/
The Computer Misuse and Cyber Security Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/
Spam Control Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/
In addition, Personal Data Protection Act 2012 of the Singaporehttp://www.mci.gov.
Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act 2003 (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/).
MDA Internet Code of Practice
Thailand does not have any specific cyber law legislation but it has adopted Computer Crime Act B.E 2550 (2007) of Thailand (http://www.thailawforum.com/
Electronic Transactions Act 2001
Consumer Protection Act 1979
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1997
- BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
Electronic Transactions Act 2008http://www.agc.gov.bn/
Computer Misuse Act 2007http://www.agc.gov.bn/
Sale of Goods Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/
Authority for Info-communications Technology Brunei Darussalam Order 2001 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/
Law on the Press 1995 (Khmer only) http://cambodia.ohchr.org/klc_
Regulations on Registration of Domain Names for Internet under the Top Level “kh” http://www.gocambodia.com/
- THE LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Electronic Transactions Law 2012.
Ministry of Information and Culture, Special Provisions (416/IC) for Control of the Content and the Information and Data Obtained via the Internet System.
Telecommunication Law 2001 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/
- THE PHILIPPINES
Electronic Commerce Act 2000 http://www.lawphil.net/
Data Privacy Act (2012) http://www.lawphil.net/
Cybercrime Prevention Act 2012 http://www.lawphil.net/
Consumer Act 1991 http://www.lawphil.net/
Alternative Dispute Resolution Act 2004
Law on E-transactions 2005 http://chinhphu.vn/portal/
Decree No. 26 providing detailed regulations on the implementation of the Law on E-transactions on digital signature and digital signature certification services http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/
Management and Use of Internet Services Decree 2001 http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/
Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights 2010.